Humane endpoints in the efficacy testing of swine erysipelas vaccines

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Sigrid Johannes, Joachim Hartinger, Coenraad F. M. Hendriksen, David B. Morton, Klaus Cussler
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For licensing the efficacy of vaccines for veterinary use has to be demonstrated by well-controlled laboratory experiments in which vaccinated and untreated animals of the target species are challenged. Erysipelas challenge tests cause extreme suffering of the unprotected animals with high fever, apathy, large skin lesions, and even death.
This paper describes a standardised procedure for the vaccination challenge test and gives due consideration to the welfare of the animals. By monitoring and using clinical signs observed during the test it is possible to minimise animal pain and distress, thus preventing unnecessary animal suffering.

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How to Cite
Johannes, S. (2003) “Humane endpoints in the efficacy testing of swine erysipelas vaccines”, ALTEX - Alternatives to animal experimentation, 20(1), pp. 11–15. Available at: (Accessed: 29 May 2024).

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