Alternative methods for the replacement of eye irritation testing

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Christian Lotz, Freia F. Schmid, Angela Rossi, Szymon Kurdyn, Daniel Kampik, Bart De Wever, Heike Walles, Florian K. Groeber
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In the last decades significant regulatory attempts were made to replace, refine and reduce animal testing to assess the risk of consumer products for the human eye. As the original in vivo Draize eye test is criticized for limited predictivity, costs and ethical issues, several animal-free test methods have been developed to categorize substances according to the global harmonized system (GHS) for eye irritation. This review summarizes the progress of alternative test methods for the assessment of eye irritation. Based on the corneal anatomy and current knowledge of the mechanisms causing eye irritation, different ex vivo and in vitro methods will be presented and discussed with regard to possible limitations and status of regulatory acceptance. In addition to established in vitro models, this review will also highlight emerging, full thickness cornea models that might be suited to predict all GHS categories.

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Lotz, C., Schmid, F. F., Rossi, A., Kurdyn, S., Kampik, D., De Wever, B., Walles, H. and Groeber, F. K. (2016) “Alternative methods for the replacement of eye irritation testing”, ALTEX - Alternatives to animal experimentation, 33(1), pp. 55–67. doi: 10.14573/altex.1508241.

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