Understanding COVID-19 through adverse outcome pathways – 2nd CIAO AOP Design Workshop

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Clemens Wittwehr
Maria João Amorim
Laure-Alix Clerbaux
Catharine Krebs
Brigitte Landesmann
Donna S. Macmillan
Penny Nymark
Rebecca Ram
Natàlia Garcia-Reyero
Magdalini Sachana
Kristie Sullivan
Jukka Sund
Catharine Willett


The CIAO project (Modelling the Pathogenesis of COVID‑19 using the Adverse Outcome Pathway framework) aims at a holistic assembly of knowledge to deliver a truly transdisciplinary description of the entire COVID‑19 physiopathology starting with the initial contact with the SARS‑CoV‑19 virus and ending with one or several adverse outcomes, e.g., respiratory failure. On 27‑28 January 2021, a group of 50+ scientists from numerous organizations around the world met in the 2nd CIAO AOP Design Workshop to discuss the depiction of the COVID‑19 disease process as a series of key events (KEs) in a network of AOPs. During the workshop, 74 such KEs forming 13 AOPs were identified, covering COVID‑19 manifestations that affect the respiratory, neurological, liver, cardiovascular, kidney and gastrointestinal systems. Modulating factors influencing the course and severity of the disease were also addressed, as was a possible extension of the investigations beyond purely biological phenomena. The workshop ended with the creation of seven working groups, which will further elaborate on the AOPs to be presented and discussed in the 3rd CIAO workshop on 28-29 April 2021.

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Wittwehr, C., Amorim, M. J., Clerbaux, L.-A., Krebs, C., Landesmann, B., Macmillan, D. S., Nymark, P., Ram, R., Garcia-Reyero, N., Sachana, M., Sullivan, K., Sund, J. and Willett, C. (2021) “Understanding COVID-19 through adverse outcome pathways – 2nd CIAO AOP Design Workshop”, ALTEX - Alternatives to animal experimentation. doi: 10.14573/altex.2102221.
Meeting Reports

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