Food for Thought ... articles allow authors to describe their ideas of where a section of the field of alternatives to animal experiments should be heading. The Food for Thought ... section is open to all authors. Articles are selected by the editor and are not subject to peer-review as they are opinion articles.



Smirnova, L., Hogberg, H. T., Leist, M. and Hartung, T. (2024). Revolutionizing developmental neurotoxicity testing – a journey from animal models to advanced in vitro systems. ALTEX 42, 152–178. doi:10.14573/altex.2403281

Maertens, A., Luechtefeld, T., Knight, J., & Hartung, T. (2024). Alternative methods go green! Green toxicology as a sustainable approach for assessing chemical safety and designing safer chemicals. ALTEX 41, 3–19. doi:10.14573/altex.2312291



Hartung, T. (2023). ToxAIcology - The evolving role of artificial intelligence in advancing toxicology and modernizing regulatory scienceALTEX 40, 559–570. doi:10.14573/altex.2309191

Rovida, C., Busquet, F., Leist, M. and Hartung, T. (2023). REACH out-numbered! The future of REACH and animal numbers. ALTEX 40, 367–388. doi:10.14573/altex.2307121

Smirnova, L., Morales Pantoja, I. E. and Hartung, T. (2023). Organoid intelligence (OI) – The ultimate functionality of a brain microphysiological system. ALTEX 40, 191–203. doi:10.14573/altex.2303261

Hartung, T. (2023). A call for a Human Exposome Project. ALTEX 40, 4–33. doi:10.14573/altex.2301061



von Aulock, S., Busquet, F., Locke, P., Herrmann, K., & Hartung, T. (2022). Engagement of scientists with the public and policymakers to promote alternative methods. ALTEX 39, 543–559. doi:10.14573/altex.2209261

Carmichael, P. L., Baltazar, M. T., Cable, S., Cochrane, S., Dent, M., Li, H., Middleton, A., Muller, I., Reynolds, G., Westmoreland, C., and White, A. (2022). Ready for regulatory use: NAMs and NGRA for chemical safety assurance. ALTEX 39, 359–366. doi:10.14573/altex.2204281

Hoffmann, S., Whaley, P., & Tsaioun, K. (2022). How evidence-based methodologies can help identify and reduce uncertainty in chemical risk assessment. ALTEX 39, 175-182. doi:10.14573/altex.2201131

Maertens, A., Golden, E., Luechtefeld, T. H., Hoffmann, S., Tsaioun, K. and Hartung, T. (2022). Probabilistic risk assessment – the keystone for the future of toxicology. ALTEX 39, 3-29. doi:10.14573/altex.2201081



Kang, I., Smirnova, L., Kuhn, J. H., Hogberg, H. T., Kleinstreuer, N. C. and Hartung, T. (2021). COVID-19 – prime time for microphysiological systems, as illustrated for the brain. ALTEX 38, 535-549. doi:10.14573/altex.2110131

Hartung, T. and Tsatsakis, A. M. (2021). The state of the scientific revolution in toxicology. ALTEX 38, 379-386. doi:10.14573/altex.2106101

Briggs, K., Bosc, N., Camara, T., Diaz, C., Drew, P., Drewe, W., Kors, J., van Mulligen, E., Pastor, M., Pognan, F., Ramon Quintana, J., Sarntivijai, S. and Steger-Hartmann, T. (2021). Guidelines for FAIR sharing of preclinical safety and off-target pharmacology data. ALTEX 38, 187-197. doi:10.14573/altex.2011181

Hartung, T. (2021). Pyrogen testing revisited on occasion of the 25th anniversary of the whole blood monocyte activation test. ALTEX 38, 3-19. doi:10.14573/altex.2101051



Madia, F., Corvi, R., Worth, A., Matys, I. and Prieto, P. (2020). Making better use of toxicity studies for human health by extrapolating across endpoints. ALTEX 37, 519-531. doi:10.14573/altex.2005061

Steger-Hartmann T., Kreuchwig, A., Vaas, L., Wichard, J., Bringezu, F., Amberg, A., Muster, W., Pognan, F., Barber, C. (2020). Introducing the concept of virtual control groups into preclinical toxicology animal testing. ALTEX 37, 343-349. doi:10.14573/altex.2001311

Busquet, F., Kleensang, A., Rovida, C., Herrmann, K., Leist, M. and Hartung, T. (2020). New European Union statistics on laboratory animal use – What really counts! ALTEX 37, 167-186. doi: 10.14573/altex.2003241

Sillé, F., Karakitsios, S., Kleensang, A., Koehler, K., Maertens, A., Miller, G., Prasse, C., Quiros-Alcala, L., Ramachandran, G., Rappaport, S., Rule, A., Sarigiannis, D., Smirnova, L. and Hartung, T. (2020). The exposome – a new approach for risk assessment. ALTEX 37, 3-23. doi: 10.14573/altex.2001051



Andersen, M. E., McMullen, P. D., Phillips, M. B., Yoon, M., Pendse, S. N., Clewell, H. J., Hartman, J. K., Moreau, M., Becker, R. A., Clewell, R. A. (2019). Developing context appropriate toxicity testing approaches using new alternative methods (NAMs). ALTEX 36, 523-534.

Hermann, K., Pistollato, F. and Stephens, M. (2019). Beyond the 3Rs: Expanding the Use of Human-Relevant Replacement Methods in Biomedical Research. ALTEX 36, 343-352. doi:10.14573/altex.1907031

Jacobs, M. N., Versteegen, R. J., Treasure, C. and Murray, J. (2019). Addressing potential ethical issues regarding the supply of human-derived products or reagents in in vitro OECD Test Guidelines. ALTEX 36, 163-176. doi:10.14573/altex.1901281

Hartung, T., de Vries, R., Hoffmann, S., Hogberg, H. T., Smirnova, L., Tsaioun, K., Whaley, P. and Leist, M. (2019). Toward Good In Vitro Reporting Standards. ALTEX 36, 3-17. doi:10.14573/altex.1812191



de Souza Santos, R., Frank, A. P., Palmer, B. F., Clegg, D. J. (2018). Sex and media: Considerations for cell culture studies. ALTEX 35, 435-440. doi:10.14573/altex.1806151

Meigs, L., Smirnova, L., Rovida, C., Leist, M. and Hartung, T. (2018). Animal testing and its alternatives – the most important omics is economics. ALTEX 35, 275-305. doi:10.14573/altex.1807041

Smirnova, L., Kleinstreuer, N., Corvi, R., Levchenko, A., Fitzpatrick, S. C. and Hartung, T. (2018). 3S – Systematic, systemic, and systems biology and toxicology. ALTEX 35, 139-162. doi:10.14573/altex.1804051

Thomas, R. S., Paules, R. S., Simeonov, A., Fitzpatrick, S. C., Crofton, K. M., Casey, W. M. and Mendrick, D. L. (2018). The US Federal Tox21 Program: A strategic and operational plan for continued leadership. ALTEX 35, 163-168. doi:10.14573/altex.1803011

Hartung, T. (2018). Rebooting the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) approach
for food additive safety in the US. ALTEX 35, 3-25. doi:10.14573/altex.1712181



Luechtefeld, T. and Hartung, T. (2017). Computational approaches to chemical hazard assessment. ALTEX 34, 459-478. doi:10.14573/altex.1710141

Hartung, T. (2017). Thresholds of toxicological concern – Setting a threshold for testing below which there is little concern. ALTEX 34, 331-351. doi:10.14573/altex.1707011

Hartung, T. (2017). Food for thought … the first ten years. ALTEX 34, 187-192. 

Hartung, T. (2017). Opinion versus evidence for the need to move away from animal testing. ALTEX 34, 193-200. doi:10.14573/altex.1703291



Busquet, F. and Hartung, T. (2017). The need for strategic development of safety sciences. ALTEX 34, 3-21. doi:10.14573/altex.1701031

Tsaioun, K., Blaauboer, B. J. and Hartung, T. (2016). Evidence-based absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) and its interplay with alternative toxicity methods. ALTEX 33, 343-358. doi:10.14573/altex.1610101

Hartung, T. (2016). E-cigarettes and the need and opportunities for alternatives to animal testing. ALTEX 33, 211-224. doi:10.14573/altex.1606291

Hartung, T. (2016). Making big sense from big data in toxicology by read-across. ALTEX 33, 83-93. doi:10.14573/altex.1603091

Eisenman, S. F. (2016). Criticizing animal experimentation, at my peril. ALTEX 33, 3-12. doi:10.14573/altex.1509282



Daneshian, M., Busquet, F., Hartung, T. and Leist, M. (2015). Animal use for science in Europe. ALTEX 32, 261-274. doi:10.14573/altex.1509081

Smirnova, L., Harris, G., Leist, M. and Hartung, T. (2015). Cellular resilience. ALTEX 32, 247-260. doi:10.14573/altex.1509271

Rovida, C., Asakura, S., Daneshian, M., Hofman-Huether, H., Leist, M., Meunier, L., Reif, D., Rossi, A., Schmutz, M., Valentin, J.-P., Zurlo, J. and Hartung, T. (2015). Toxicity testing in the 21st century beyond environmental chemicals. ALTEX 32, 171-181. doi:10.14573/altex.1506201

Hartung, T. (2015). The human whole blood pyrogen test – Lessons learned in twenty years. ALTEX 32, 79-100. doi:10.14573/altex.1503241

Linkov, I., Massey, O., Keisler, J., Rusyn, I. and Hartung, T. (2015). From “weight of evidence” to quantitative data integration using multicriteria decision analysis and Bayesian methods. ALTEX 32, 3-8. doi:10.14573/altex.1412231



Patlewicz, G., Ball, N., Becker, R. A., Booth, E. D., Cronin, M. T. D., Kroese, D., Steup, D., van Ravenzwaay, B. and Hartung, T. (2014). Read-across approaches – Misconceptions, promises and challenges ahead. ALTEX 31, 387-396. doi:10.14573/altex.1410071

Maertens, A., Anastas, N., Spencer, P. J., Stephens, M., Goldberg, A. and Hartung, T. (2014). Green toxicology. ALTEX 31, 243-249. doi:10.14573/altex.1406181

Smirnova, L., Hogberg, H. T., Leist, M., and Hartung, T. (2014). Developmental neurotoxicity – Challenges in the 21st century and in vitro opportunities. ALTEX 31, 129-156. doi:10.14573/altex.1403271

Taylor, K., Stengel, W., Casalegno, C., and Andrew, D. (2014). Experiences of the REACH testing proposals system to reduce animal testing. ALTEX 31, 107-128. doi:10.14573/altex.1311151

Zurlo, J. and Hutchinson, E. (2014). Refinement. ALTEX 31, 4-10. doi:10.14573/altex.1312191



Hartung, T. and Corsini, E. (2013). Immunotoxicology: Challenges in the 21st century and in vitro opportunities. ALTEX 30, 411-426. doi:10.14573/altex.2013.4.411

Hartung, T. (2013). Look back in anger – What clinical studies tell us about preclinical work. ALTEX 30, 275-291. doi:10.14573/altex.2013.3.275

Hartung, T., Hoffmann, S. and Stephens, M. (2013). Mechanistic validation. ALTEX 30, 119-130. doi:10.14573/altex.2013.2.119

Paparella, M., Daneshian, M., Hornek-Gausterer, R., Kinzl, M., Mauritz, I. and Mühlegger, S. (2013). Uncertainty of testing methods – What do we (want to) know? ALTEX 30, 131-144. doi:10.14573/altex.2013.2.131

Hartung, T., Luechtefeld, T., Maertens, A. and Kleensang, A. (2013). Integrated testing strategies for safety assessments. ALTEX 30, 3-18. doi:10.14573/altex.2013.1.003



Rossini, G. P. and Hartung, T. (2012). Food for thought … towards tailored assays for cell-based approaches to toxicity testing. ALTEX 29, 359-372. doi:10.14573/altex.2012.4.359

Hartung, T. and Zurlo, J. (2012). Alternative approaches for medical countermeasures to biological and chemical terrorism and warfare. ALTEX 29, 251-260. doi:10.14573/altex.2012.3.251

Hardy. B., Apic, G., Carthew, P., Clark, D., Cook, D., Dix, I., Escher, S., Hastings, J., Heard, D. J., Jeliazkova, N., Judson, P., Matis-Mitchell, S., Mitic, D., Myatt, G., Shah, I., Spjuth, O., Tcheremenskaia, O., Toldo, L., Watson, D., White, A. and Yang, C. (2012). Food for thought ... a toxicology ontology roadmap. ALTEX 29, 129-137. doi:10.14573/altex.2012.2.129

Hartung, T., van Vliet, E., Jaworska, J., Bonilla, L., Skinner, N. and Thomas, R. (2012). Systems toxicology. ALTEX 29, 119-128. doi:10.14573/altex.2012.2.119



Locke, P. A. and Myers, D. B. (2011). A replacement-first approach to toxicity testing is necessary to successfully reauthorize TSCA. ALTEX 28, 266-272. doi:10.14573/altex.2011.4.266

Andersen, M. E., Clewell, H. J. III, Carmichael, P. L., and Boekelheide, K. (2011). Can case study approaches speed implementation of the NRC report: “Toxicity testing in the 21st century: A vision and a strategy?” ALTEX 28, 175-182. doi:10.14573/altex.2011.3.175

Hartung, T. and McBride, M. (2011). Food for thought ... on mapping the human toxome. ALTEX 28, 83-93. doi:10.14573/altex.2011.2.083

Wilcox, N. and Goldberg, A. (2011). Food for thought ... on validation. A puzzle or a mystery: An approach founded on new science. ALTEX 28, 3-8. doi:10.14573/altex.2011.1.003



Leist, M., Efremova, L. and Karreman, C. (2010). Food for thought ... considerations and guidelines for basic test method descriptions in toxicology. ALTEX 27, 309-17. doi:10.14573/altex.2010.4.309

Rovida, C. (2010). Food for thought ... why no new in vitro tests will be done for REACH by registrants. ALTEX 27,175-83. doi:10.14573/altex.2010.3.175

Hartung T. (2010). Food for thought ... on alternative methods for nanoparticle safety testing. ALTEX 27, 87-95. doi:10.14573/altex.2010.2.87

Hartung T. (2010). Food for thought ...on alternative methods for chemical safety testing. ALTEX 27, 3-14. doi:10.14573/altex.2010.1.3



Hartung, T., Blaauboer, B. and Leist, M. (2009). Food for thought ... on education in alternative methods in toxicology. ALTEX 26, 255-63. doi:10.14573/altex.2009.4.255

Hartung, T and Hoffmann, S. (2009). Food for thought ... on in silico methods in toxicology. ALTEX 26, 155-66. doi:10.14573/altex.2009.3.155

Hartung, T. (2009). Food for thought ... on evidence-based toxicology. ALTEX 26, 75-82. doi:10.14573/altex.2009.2.75

Bottini, A. A. and Hartung, T. (2009). Food for thought ... on the economics of animal testing. ALTEX 26, 3-16. doi:10.14573/altex.2009.1.3



Hartung, T. and Koëter, H. (2008). Food for thought ... on food safety testing. ALTEX 25, 259-64. doi:10.14573/altex.2008.4.259

Hartung, T. (2008). Food for thought ... on alternative methods for cosmetics safety testing. ALTEX 25, 147-62. doi:10.14573/altex.2008.3.147

Hartung, T. and Leist, M. (2008). Food for thought ... on the evolution of toxicology and the phasing out of animal testing. ALTEX 25, 91-102. doi:10.14573/altex.2008.2.91

Leist, M., Kadereit, S. and Schildknecht, S. (2008). Food for thought ... on the real success of 3R approaches. ALTEX 25, 17-32. doi:10.14573/altex.2008.1.17

Hartung T. (2008). Food for thought ... on animal tests. ALTEX 25, 3-16. doi:10.14573/altex.2008.1.3



Bottini, A. A., Amcoff, P. and Hartung, T. (2007). Food for thought … on globalisation of alternative methods. ALTEX 24, 255-261. doi:10.14573/altex.2007.4.255

Hartung, T. (2007). Food for thought ... on cell culture. ALTEX 24, 143-147. doi:10.14573/altex.2007.3.143

Hartung, T. (2007). Food for thought ... on validation. ALTEX 24, 67-73. doi:10.14573/altex.2007.2.67