Food for Thought ... in ALTEX


Food for Thought ... articles allow authors to describe their ideas of where a section of the field of alternatives to animal experiments should be heading. The Food for Thought ... section is open to all authors. Articles are selected by the editor and are not subject to peer-review as they are opinion articles.

All Food for Thought … articles published in ALTEX since 2007 are listed here:



Thomas, R. S., Paules, R. S., Simeonov, A., Fitzpatrick, S. C., Crofton, K. M., Casey, W. M., Mendrick, D. L. (2018). The US Federal Tox21 Program: A Strategic and Operational Plan for Continued Leadership. ALTEX, Epub. doi:10.14573/altex.1803011

Hartung, T. (2018). Rebooting the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) approach
for food additive safety in the US. ALTEX 35, 3-25. doi:10.14573/altex.1712181



Luechtefeld, T. and Hartung, T. (2017). Computational approaches to chemical hazard assessment. ALTEX 34, 459-478. doi:10.14573/altex.1710141

Hartung, T. (2017). Thresholds of toxicological concern – Setting a threshold for testing below which there is little concern. ALTEX 34, 331-351. doi:10.14573/altex.1707011

Hartung, T. (2017). Food for thought … the first ten years. ALTEX 34, 187-192.   

Hartung, T. (2017). Opinion versus evidence for the need to move away from animal testing. ALTEX 34, 193-200. doi:10.14573/altex.1703291



Busquet, F. and Hartung, T. (2017). The need for strategic development of safety sciences. ALTEX 34, 3-21. doi:10.14573/altex.1701031

Tsaioun, K., Blaauboer, B. J. and Hartung, T. (2016). Evidence-based absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) and its interplay with alternative toxicity methods. ALTEX 33, 343-358. doi:10.14573/altex.1610101

Hartung, T. (2016). E-cigarettes and the need and opportunities for alternatives to animal testing. ALTEX 33, 211-224. doi:10.14573/altex.1606291

Hartung, T. (2016). Making big sense from big data in toxicology by read-across. ALTEX 33, 83-93. doi:10.14573/altex.1603091

Eisenman, S. F. (2016). Criticizing animal experimentation, at my peril. ALTEX 33, 3-12. doi:10.14573/altex.1509282



Daneshian, M., Busquet, F., Hartung, T. and Leist, M. (2015). Animal use for science in Europe. ALTEX 32, 261-274. doi:10.14573/altex.1509081

Smirnova, L., Harris, G., Leist, M. and Hartung, T. (2015). Cellular resilience. ALTEX 32, 247-260. doi:10.14573/altex.1509271

Rovida, C., Asakura, S., Daneshian, M., Hofman-Huether, H., Leist, M., Meunier, L., Reif, D., Rossi, A., Schmutz, M., Valentin, J.-P., Zurlo, J. and Hartung, T. (2015). Toxicity testing in the 21st century beyond environmental chemicals. ALTEX 32, 171-181. doi:10.14573/altex.1506201

Hartung, T. (2015). The human whole blood pyrogen test – Lessons learned in twenty years. ALTEX 32, 79-100. doi:10.14573/altex.1503241

Linkov, I., Massey, O., Keisler, J., Rusyn, I. and Hartung, T. (2015). From “weight of evidence” to quantitative data integration using multicriteria decision analysis and Bayesian methods. ALTEX 32, 3-8. doi:10.14573/altex.1412231



Patlewicz, G., Ball, N., Becker, R. A., Booth, E. D., Cronin, M. T. D., Kroese, D., Steup, D., van Ravenzwaay, B. and Hartung, T. (2014). Read-across approaches – Misconceptions, promises and challenges ahead. ALTEX 31, 387-396. doi:10.14573/altex.1410071

Maertens, A., Anastas, N., Spencer, P. J., Stephens, M., Goldberg, A. and Hartung, T. (2014). Green toxicology. ALTEX 31, 243-249. doi:10.14573/altex.1406181

Smirnova, L., Hogberg, H. T., Leist, M., and Hartung, T. (2014). Developmental neurotoxicity – Challenges in the 21st century and in vitro opportunities. ALTEX 31, 129-156. doi:10.14573/altex.1403271

Taylor, K., Stengel, W., Casalegno, C., and Andrew, D. (2014). Experiences of the REACH testing proposals system to reduce animal testing. ALTEX 31, 107-128. doi:10.14573/altex.1311151

Zurlo, J. and Hutchinson, E. (2014). Refinement. ALTEX 31, 4-10. doi:10.14573/altex.1312191



Hartung, T. and Corsini, E. (2013). Immunotoxicology: Challenges in the 21st century and in vitro opportunities. ALTEX 30, 411-426. doi:10.14573/altex.2013.4.411

Hartung, T. (2013). Look back in anger – What clinical studies tell us about preclinical work. ALTEX 30, 275-291. doi:10.14573/altex.2013.3.275

Hartung, T., Hoffmann, S. and Stephens, M. (2013). Mechanistic validation. ALTEX 30, 119-130. doi:10.14573/altex.2013.2.119

Paparella, M., Daneshian, M., Hornek-Gausterer, R., Kinzl, M., Mauritz, I. and Mühlegger, S. (2013). Uncertainty of testing methods – What do we (want to) know? ALTEX 30, 131-144. doi:10.14573/altex.2013.2.131

Hartung, T., Luechtefeld, T., Maertens, A. and Kleensang, A. (2013). Integrated testing strategies for safety assessments. ALTEX 30, 3-18. doi:10.14573/altex.2013.1.003



Rossini, G. P. and Hartung, T. (2012). Food for thought … towards tailored assays for cell-based approaches to toxicity testing. ALTEX 29, 359-372. doi:10.14573/altex.2012.4.359

Hartung, T. and Zurlo, J. (2012). Alternative approaches for medical countermeasures to biological and chemical terrorism and warfare. ALTEX 29, 251-260. doi:10.14573/altex.2012.3.251

Hardy. B., Apic, G., Carthew, P., Clark, D., Cook, D., Dix, I., Escher, S., Hastings, J., Heard, D. J., Jeliazkova, N., Judson, P., Matis-Mitchell, S., Mitic, D., Myatt, G., Shah, I., Spjuth, O., Tcheremenskaia, O., Toldo, L., Watson, D., White, A. and Yang, C. (2012). Food for thought ... a toxicology ontology roadmap. ALTEX 29, 129-137. doi:10.14573/altex.2012.2.129

Hartung, T., van Vliet, E., Jaworska, J., Bonilla, L., Skinner, N. and Thomas, R. (2012). Systems toxicology. ALTEX 29, 119-128. doi:10.14573/altex.2012.2.119



Locke, P. A. and Myers, D. B. (2011). A replacement-first approach to toxicity testing is necessary to successfully reauthorize TSCA. ALTEX 28, 266-272. doi:10.14573/altex.2011.4.266

Andersen, M. E., Clewell, H. J. III, Carmichael, P. L., and Boekelheide, K. (2011). Can case study approaches speed implementation of the NRC report: “Toxicity testing in the 21st century: A vision and a strategy?” ALTEX 28, 175-182. doi:10.14573/altex.2011.3.175

Hartung, T. and McBride, M. (2011). Food for thought ... on mapping the human toxome. ALTEX 28, 83-93. doi:10.14573/altex.2011.2.083

Wilcox, N. and Goldberg, A. (2011). Food for thought ... on validation. A puzzle or a mystery: An approach founded on new science. ALTEX 28, 3-8. doi:10.14573/altex.2011.1.003



Leist, M., Efremova, L. and Karreman, C. (2010). Food for thought ... considerations and guidelines for basic test method descriptions in toxicology. ALTEX 27, 309-17. doi:10.14573/altex.2010.4.309

Rovida, C. (2010). Food for thought ... why no new in vitro tests will be done for REACH by registrants. ALTEX 27,175-83. doi:10.14573/altex.2010.3.175

Hartung T. (2010). Food for thought ... on alternative methods for nanoparticle safety testing. ALTEX 27, 87-95. doi:10.14573/altex.2010.2.87

Hartung T. (2010). Food for thought ...on alternative methods for chemical safety testing. ALTEX 27, 3-14. doi:10.14573/altex.2010.1.3



Hartung, T., Blaauboer, B. and Leist, M. (2009). Food for thought ... on education in alternative methods in toxicology. ALTEX 26, 255-63. doi:10.14573/altex.2009.4.255

Hartung, T and Hoffmann, S. (2009). Food for thought ... on in silico methods in toxicology. ALTEX 26, 155-66. doi:10.14573/altex.2009.3.155

Hartung, T. (2009). Food for thought ... on evidence-based toxicology. ALTEX 26, 75-82. doi:10.14573/altex.2009.2.75

Bottini, A. A. and Hartung, T. (2009). Food for thought ... on the economics of animal testing. ALTEX 26, 3-16. doi:10.14573/altex.2009.1.3



Hartung, T. and Koëter, H. (2008). Food for thought ... on food safety testing. ALTEX 25, 259-64. doi:10.14573/altex.2008.4.259

Hartung, T. (2008). Food for thought ... on alternative methods for cosmetics safety testing. ALTEX 25, 147-62. doi:10.14573/altex.2008.3.147

Hartung, T. and Leist, M. (2008). Food for thought ... on the evolution of toxicology and the phasing out of animal testing. ALTEX 25, 91-102. doi:10.14573/altex.2008.2.91

Leist, M., Kadereit, S. and Schildknecht, S. (2008). Food for thought ... on the real success of 3R approaches. ALTEX 25, 17-32. doi:10.14573/altex.2008.1.17

Hartung T. (2008). Food for thought ... on animal tests. ALTEX 25, 3-16. doi:10.14573/altex.2008.1.3



Bottini, A. A., Amcoff, P. and Hartung, T. (2007). Food for thought … on globalisation of alternative methods. ALTEX 24, 255-261. doi:10.14573/altex.2007.4.255

Hartung, T. (2007). Food for thought ... on cell culture. ALTEX 24, 143-147. doi:10.14573/altex.2007.3.143

Hartung, T. (2007). Food for thought ... on validation. ALTEX 24, 67-73. doi:10.14573/altex.2007.2.67