The transatlantic think tank for toxicology is a collaboration of the toxicologically oriented chairs in Baltimore, Konstanz and Utrecht sponsored by the Doerenkamp Zbinden Foundation.

t4 workshop reports


Pamies, P., Bal-Price, A., Chesne, C. et al. (2018). Advanced Good Cell Culture Practice for human primary, stem cell-derived and organoid models as well as microphysiological systems. ALTEX, Epub ahead of print. doi:10.14573/altex.1710081


Kerecman Myers, D., Goldberg, A. M., Poth, A. et al. (2017). From in vivo to in vitro: The medical device testing paradigm shift. ALTEX 34, 479-500. doi:10.14573/altex.1608081

Pamies, D., Bal-Price, A., Simeonov, A. et al. (2017). Good cell culture practice for stem cells and stem-cell-derived models. ALTEX 34, 95-132. doi:10.14573/altex.1607121

Aschner, M., Ceccatelli, S., Daneshian, M. et al. (2017). Reference compounds for alternative test methods to indicate developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) potential of chemicals: Example lists and criteria for their selection and use. ALTEX 34, 49-74. doi:10.14573/altex.1604201



Marx, U., Andersson, T. B., Bahinski, A. et al. (2016). Biology-inspired microphysiological system approaches to solve the prediction dilemma of substance testing. ALTEX 33, 272-321. doi:10.14573/altex.1603161

Ball, N., Cronin, M. T., Shen, J. et al. (2016). Toward good read-across practice (GRAP) guidance. ALTEX 33, 149-166. doi:10.14573/altex.1601251

Zhu, H., Bouhifd, M., Donley, E. et al. (2016). Supporting read-across using biological data. ALTEX 33, 167-182. doi:10.14573/altex.1601252


Bouhifd, M., Beger, R., Flynn, T. et al. (2015). Quality assurance of metabolomics. ALTEX 32, 319-326. doi:10.14573/altex.1509161

Gordon, S., Daneshian, M., Bouwstra, J. et al. (2015). Non-animal models of epithelial barriers (skin, intestine and lung) in research, industrial applications and regulatory toxicology. ALTEX 32, 327-378. doi:10.14573/altex.1510051

Rovida, C., Alepee, N., Api, A. M. et al. (2015). Integrated testing strategies (ITS) for safety assessment. ALTEX 32, 25-40. doi:10.14573/altex.1411011


Alepee, N., Bahinski, A., Daneshian, M. et al. (2014). State-of-the-art of 3D cultures (organs-on-a-chip) in safety testing and pathophysiology. ALTEX 31, 441-477. doi:10.14573/altex1406111

van Vliet, E., Daneshian, M., Beilmann, M. et al. (2014). Current approaches and future role of high content imaging in safety sciences and drug discovery. ALTEX 31, 479-493. doi:10.14573/altex.1405271

Leist, M., Hasiwa, N., Rovida, C. et al. (2014). Consensus report on the future of animal-free systemic toxicity testing. ALTEX 31, 341-356. doi:10.14573/altex.1406091

Kleensang, A., Maertens, A., Rosenberg, M. et al. (2014). Pathways of toxicity. ALTEX 31, 53-61. doi:10.14573/altex.1309261

Juberg, D. R., Borghoff, S. J., Becker, R. A. et al. (2014). Lessons learned, challenges, and opportunities: The U.S. Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. ALTEX 31, 63-78. doi:10.14573/altex.1309171


Parks Saldutti, L., Beyer, B. K., Breslin, W. et al. (2013). In vitro testicular toxicity models: Opportunities for advancement via biomedical engineering techniques. ALTEX 30, 353-377. doi:10.14573/altex.2013.3.353

Ramirez, T., Daneshian, M., Kamp, H. et al. (2013). Metabolomics in toxicology and preclinical research. ALTEX 30, 209-225. doi:10.14573/altex.2013.2.209



Blaauboer, B. J., Boekelheide, K., Clewell, H. J. et al. (2012). The use of biomarkers of toxicity for integrating in vitro hazard estimates into risk assessment for humans. ALTEX 29, 411-425. doi:10.14573/altex.2012.4.411


Daneshian, M., Akbarsha, M. A., Blaauboer, B. et al. (2011). A framework program for the teaching of alternative methods (replacement, reduction, refinement) to animal experimentation. ALTEX 28, 341-352. doi:10.14573/altex.2011.4.341

Hasiwa, N., Bailey, J., Clausing, P. et al. (2011). Critical evaluation of the use of dogs in biomedical research and testing in Europe. ALTEX 28, 326-340. doi:10.14573/altex.2011.4.326

Zurlo, J., Bayne, K. A., Brown, D. C. et al. (2011). Critical evaluation of the use of dogs in biomedical research and testing in Europe. ALTEX 28, 355-359.

Silbergeld, E. K., Contreras, E. Q., Hartung, T. et al. (2011). Nanotoxicology: “The end of the beginning” – Signs on the roadmap to a strategy for assuring the safe application and use of nanomaterials. ALTEX 28, 236-241. doi:10.14573/altex.2011.3.236

t4 reports

Ferrario, D., Brustio, R. and Hartung, T. (2014). Glossary of reference terms for alternative test methods and their validation. ALTEX 31, 319-335. doi:10.14573/altex.1403311

Daneshian, M., Botana, L. M., Dechraoui Bottein, M. Y. et al. (2013). A roadmap for hazard monitoring and risk assessment of marine biotoxins on the basis of chemical and biological test systems. ALTEX 30, 487-545. doi:10.14573/altex.2013.4.487

Hasiwa, N., Daneshian, M., Bruegger, P. et al. (2013). Evidence for the detection of non-endotoxin pyrogens by the whole blood monocyte activation test. ALTEX 30, 169-208. doi:10.14573/altex.2013.2.169.
Erratum ALTEX 30, 352.
Addendum ALTEX 31, 226.

Ferrario, D. and Rabbit, R. R. (2012). Analysis of the proposed EU regulation concerning biocide products and its opportunities for alternative approaches and a toxicology for the 21st century. ALTEX 29, 157-172. doi:10.14573/altex.2012.2.157

Basketter, D. A., Clewell, H., Kimber, I. et al. (2012). A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing. ALTEX 29, 3-91. doi:10.14573/altex.2012.1.003

Rovida, C., Longo, F. and Rabbit, R. R. (2011). How are reproductive toxicity and developmental toxicity addressed in REACH dossiers? ALTEX 28, 273-294. doi:10.14573/altex.2011.4.273

Hartung, T., Blaauboer, B. J., Bosgra, S. et al. (2011). An expert consortium review of the EC-commissioned report “Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: Current status and future prospects – 2010”. ALTEX 28, 183-209. doi:10.14573/altex.2011.3.183

Hartung, T. (2010). Comparative analysis of the revised Directive 2010/63/EU for the protection of laboratory animals with its predecessor 86/609/EEC. ALTEX 27, 285-303. doi:10.14573/altex.2010.4.285

Kuegler, P. B., Zimmer, B., Waldmann, T. et al. (2010). Markers of murine embryonic and neural stem cells, neurons and astrocytes: Reference points for developmental neurotoxicity testing. ALTEX 27, 17-42. doi:10.14573/altex.2010.1.16

Rovida, C. and Hartung, T. (2009). Re-evaluation of animal numbers and costs for in vivo tests to accomplish REACH legislation requirements for chemicals. ALTEX 26, 187-208. doi:10.14573/altex.2009.3.187

Leist, M., Bremer, S., Brundin, P. et al. (2008). The biological and ethical basis of the use of human embryonic stem cells for in vitro test systems or cell therapy. ALTEX 25, 163-190. doi:10.14573/altex.2008.3.163