Training of upper respiratory endoscopy in the horse using preserved head and neck

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Fawzy Elnady
Eldessouky Sheta
Ashour K. Khalifa
Hamdy Rizk


Endoscopy of the upper respiratory tract (URT) is one of the minimally invasive techniques used for diagnosis and treatment of diseases in horses. Training in the use of an endoscope follows an apprenticeship approach, with extensive practice needed to help achieve effective skills acquisition. The use of live animals for training presents the risk of injury to both the animal and the trainee. The increased number of students and practitioners, a shortage of facilities and limited time available from expert clinicians add more challenges to the training process. In this work, we focused on the development of a preserved head and neck model that can be used as an effective training tool for training novices in the basics of URT endoscopy. The aim of the training is to become familiar with handling the endoscope and identification of the endoscopic depictions of normal anatomical structures encountered in the URT. Using the model, anatomical structures were clearly visible, recognized by their shape, architecture and topographical location. The model solved many of the aforementioned practical challenges and has great potential as a replacement alternative to the use of live animals. There are opportunities for the application of such models in training other clinical skills and for a variety of species.

Erratum: doi:10.14573/altex.1512121

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How to Cite
Elnady, F., Sheta, E., Khalifa, A. K. and Rizk, H. (2015) “Training of upper respiratory endoscopy in the horse using preserved head and neck”, ALTEX - Alternatives to animal experimentation, 32(4), pp. 384-387. doi: 10.14573/altex.1505111.
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