Glossary of reference terms for alternative test methods and their validation

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Daniele Ferrario, Roberta Brustio, Thomas Hartung
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This glossary was developed to provide technical references to support work in the field of alternatives to animal testing. It was compiled from various existing reference documents coming from different sources and is meant to be a point of reference on alternatives to animal testing. Giving the ever-increasing number of alternative test methods and approaches being developed over the last decades, a combination, revision and harmonization of earlier published collections of terms used in the validation of such methods is required. The need to update previous glossary efforts came from the acknowledgement that new words have emerged with the development of new approaches, while others have become obsolete, and the meaning of some terms has partially changed over time. With this glossary we intend to provide guidance on issues related to the validation of new or updated testing methods consistent with current approaches. Moreover, because of new developments and technologies, a glossary needs to be a living, constantly updated document. An Internet-based version based on this compilation may be found at, allowing the addition of new material.

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Ferrario, D., Brustio, R. and Hartung, T. (2014) “Glossary of reference terms for alternative test methods and their validation”, ALTEX - Alternatives to animal experimentation, 31(3), pp. 319–335. doi: 10.14573/altex.1403311.

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